U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Share This:

Toxicokinetics of Perfluorobutane Sulfonate (PFBS), Perfluorohexane-1-Sulphonic Acid (PFHxS), and Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid (PFOS) in Male and Female Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD Rats after Intravenous and Gavage Administration

Huang M.C., Dzierlenga A., Robinson V.G, Waidyanatha S, DeVito M.J, Eifrid M.A, Granville C.A., Gibbs S.T, Blystone C.R
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22427/NTP-DATA-002-00037-0001-000-3



Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent contaminants that have been detected in the environment and in humans. With the PFAS chemical class, there are perfluorinated alkyl acids, many of which have been associated with certain toxicities. Because toxicity testing cannot feasibly be conducted for each individual PFAS, the NTP designed studies to compare toxicities across different subclasses of PFAS and across PFAS of different chain lengths to better understand the structure-toxicity relationship. Pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in parallel to these toxicity studies to facilitate comparisons across PFAS and to provide context for human relevance. Here, the toxicokinetic parameters of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane-1-sulphonic acid (PFHxS), or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) after a single intravenous or gavage administration in male and female Hsd:Sprague-Dawley rats are reported. Concentrations of these PFAS were measured in the liver, kidney, and brain. Plasma half-life increased with longer chain length after gavage administration: PFBS- males averaged 3.3 hours, females 1.3 hours; PFHxS- males averaged 16.3 days, females 2.1 days; PFOS- males and females averaged ~ 20 days. There were dose-dependent changes in clearance and systemic exposure for all administered chemicals and the direction of change was different in PFOS compared to the others. Liver:plasma ratios of PFOS were the highest followed by PFHxS and PFBS, while brain:plasma ratios were low in all three sulfonates. Sex differences in plasma half-life and tissue distribution were observed for PFBS and PFHxS, but not PFOS. These data provide a direct comparison of the kinetics of three different perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids and allow for the contextualization of toxicity data in rats for human risk assessment of this chemical class.

Individual Animal Data

Perfluorobutane Sulfonate (PFBS)

Perfluorohexane-1-Sulphonic Acid (PFHxS)

Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid (PFOS)